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The Human Side of Globalization

by Dr. Patrick Mendis

Voyage of Learning
Follow Dr. Patrick Mendis as he travels the world to teach and study on cultures and Globalization. Dr. Patrick Mendis teaches MBA courses in international trade policy and management at the UMUC Graduate School of Management and Technology at the University of Maryland. He joined the University of Pittsburgh as visiting professor of economics and public policy in the Semester at Sea Program during the spring term of 2004. Professor Mendis taught courses in development economics, international political economy, and economics of public policy. During his field research, Dr. Mendis and his students met with American diplomats, political leaders, government officials, business executives, community leaders, and ordinary people of the Bahamas, Brazil, Cambodia, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Kenya, South Africa, South Korea, Vietnam, and other countries.

Purchase Dr. Mendis' book, Freedom on the March: An American Voyage to Explore Globalization. PROCEEDS FROM BOOK SALES WILL BE DONATED TO THE MANY TSUNAMI VICTIMS OF SRI LANKA. Please contact us to purchase this book.

Table of Contents

Advanced Praise for the Book iii
Dedication xi
Acknowledgements xii
List of Maps and Figures xxii

Foreword by Sir Arthur C. Clarke xxxi


1. The Wings of Freedom 1
Voyage to Know Thyself 6
Americanization 7
Glocalization of America 10
The Four Pillars of Globalization 12
No One is in Charge 13
The Washington Consensus 16
Early Globalizers 19
The Military: Innovator and Globalizer 20
Responding to Globalization 22

2. Travel Makes a Safer World 29
International Experiment 30
A Religious America 33
Experiencing a Homeless Life 40
Educating America 43
World Traveler 45

3. Columbus' New World: The Bahamas 55
True Learning is Painful 57
Adventurous Learners 61
International Understanding 64

4. Fidel Castro's Freedom and Capitalism 67
Liberty or Safety? 70
Games in Capitalism 74
Healthcare and Education 76
Inspiring Leader 78
The Closed Encounter of the Second Kind 80
Cuban-Americans in Florida 81

5. Cuba's Pathways to Castroika 87
Castroika and Glocalization 89
Minnesota's Connection 92
Policlinics and Healthcare 93
Plantation Agriculture 96
Glocalization: Russian, Chinese, and Cuban Ways 100

6. Favelas, Tequila Sunrise, and Brazil 107
Daily Realities and Glocalization 110
Favelas Everywhere 110
Tequila Sunrise 116
Sustainable Development and Rio 120
Future of Brazilian Affairs 123

7. Politics of HIV/AIDS and Apartheid in South Africa 127
Global Politics of HIV and AIDS 130
Black, White, and Colored 138
Groot Constantia Wine Estate 140
Langa Black Township 143
Mandela's Robben Island 147
African Renaissance 150

8. Safari and Maasai Culture in Tanzania and Kenya 155
The Amish in America: Traditions vs. Modernity 158
The Maasai Paradox in Africa 160
Female Genital Mutilation 164
FGM: Values or Virtues? 168
Cultural Rights or Individual Rights? 171
Safari and Globalizing Culture 173
Glocalization of Culture and Freedom 176

9. India's Soft Powers: Gifts to the World 179
Yuppie-ness in Indian Diaspora 181
Realities to Reflect 183
The Indian Diaspora and American Politics 187
India's Beauty and Tragedy 193
The Politics and Economics of the Indian Future 198
Indian Americans: A New Source of Global Power 202
India's Soft Powers 206
Nuclear Responsibility 210

10. Niketown USA in Vietnam 217
The American Endgame: Good Morning, Nike! 222
Phil Knight: The Man Behind Nike 228
The Microcosm of a Nike Operation 230
America's Gift to the World 234

11. Cambodia: From the Temples of Gods to Killing Fields 239
Understanding the Genocide 244
Beauty and the Beast 245
Buddhist Kingdoms 248
Neighbors and Western Security 251
Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge 252
Buddhist Analysis of Genocide 256
A Taste of Freedom 268

12. Confucian Union: One Country, Two Systems in China 275
Confucian Union of China 277
Nature of Homo Economicus vs. Politicus 281
Political Economy of the Colonies 286
Hong Kong: A Window to Global Capitalism 288
Macau: China's "Sin City" 294
The Cost of Nurturing Human Nature 299
Peaceful Rise for a Harmonious Society 302
Is a Confucian Union Possible? 305
A Gift from Heaven 309

13. Spirit of Capitalism and Confucian Economics in South Korea 313
Is Culture Destiny? 318
Confucian Economics and Asian Values 323
Family and Relationships Mattered 324
Education as Power 325
Government Came First 326
Cultural Foundation for Education and Governance 327
Americanized Korea: Market Economics and Democracy 329
Westernized: Confused or Confucian? 334
Korean Glocalization 336

14. Modernization of Buddhism: Is it Glocalization or Japanization? 341
Modernizing and Glocalizing Japan 345
Japanization of Buddhism 347
Glocalization of Buddhism 349
The Buddhist Capital of Koyasan 350
Learning from Buddhist Monks 353
Glocalizing Cultures 357

15. The Return of Freedom and Glocalization 359
Uniting with Freedom 361
Americanization: A Melting Pot or a Salad Bowl? 364
The Tripod of American Experiment 367
American Globalization 369
All Politics are Local, Global - and, Glocal 372
Caribbean and Latin America 373
Africa 375
Asia 376
America's Worldview from Within 379
Freedom for All 381

Afterword by Dr. A. T. Ariyaratne, "Gandhi of Sri Lanka" 391

Selected Bibliography 393
About the Author 402

Advance Praise for the Book

"This book is three quite different - and quite wonderful - things. It is first of all a political-cultural travelogue by a professor who took advantage of a semester lecturing aboard ship to acquire penetrating insights into a dozen nations from the Caribbean south and westward to the Sea of Japan. Second, it is a richly illustrated essay on globalization - what the author calls 'glocalization' - vividly brought to life by his first-hand experience. Thirdly, it is confirmation to those who know Patrick Mendis of his extraordinary devotion to the best of the American ethos he adopted - and enriched - in an impressive career since arriving as a student from Sri Lanka. His book deserves a wide American audience."

Professor Lincoln P. Bloomfield, Professor of Political Science Emeritus at MIT, former U.S. State Department and White House's National Security Council official, and author most recently of Accidental Encounters With History

"Patrick Mendis - born in Sri Lanka, educated in America, now truly a citizen of the world - has an infectious enthusiasm for the diversity he has experienced. His informal glimpses of peoples and policies, of life and work, in a dozen countries show just how various and vibrant 'globalization' really is."

Ambassador Harlan Cleveland, President Emeritus
President Emeritus, World Academy of Art and Science; Founding Dean, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities; and former U.S. Ambassador to NATO and Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization

"The dominant trend in international relations is undoubtedly globalization, integrating the world politically and economically, but bringing its benefits unevenly to the people of the world. There is no better equipped scholar and researcher of this topic than Patrick Mendis who was born and raised in a developing country and now lives in the heart of the developed world. Trained in the discipline of geography, Dr. Mendis' book is a multi-disciplinary analysis that is both stimulating and eminently readable."

Ambassador Jayantha Dhanapala, Senior Adviser to the President of Sri Lanka; Chair, United Nations Unviersity Council; former Undersecretary General of the United Nations; and former Sri Lankan Ambassador to the United States

"Professor Patrick Mendis clearly illustrates the interconnectivity and complexity of globalization in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. These essays reflect his eclectic academic and professional experience, including perceptive observations while teaching in the NATO countries and a United Nations study tour in the Middle East. Above all, the analysis radiates his firm belief in the importance of freedom and democracy to human progress. In these pages one learns how globalization and freedom enable and sustain international peace."

Dr. Michael B. Graham, Vice President, The U.S. Institute of Peace and former U.S. State Department official

"Rabindranath Tagore once said, 'With your mind intent, cross this sea of chaos. And sail to that shore of new creation!' This book certainly helps us to reach the shore of new creation where globalisation will be a blessing for all."

Professor M. S. Swaminathan, President, Pugwash Conferences on Science & World Affairs; Chair, National Commission on Farmers, Government of India; and Chair, The M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai

"Globalization is the wave of the future. Some fear and/or loath it for as Mendis writes in his book, '. . . globalization is an extent of Americanization.' Whether this is true or not, the perception is very much out there and it is a negative one to many. The counter is to embrace globalization, as its association with the US and Western Europe is not necessarily a bad thing and it doesn't spell the end of independent non-Western cultures. In fact, it can be a phenomenon that enriches cultures as it enriches people around the world. Mendis' work helps to take the fear out of 'globalization' through its understanding and thus its eventual acceptance."

Professor Harold J. Kearsley, Director, Master of Arts in Diplomacy Program at Norwich University

"As an American diplomat and scholar, Patrick presents a unique interdisciplinary and intercultural analysis of globalization in the Caribbean, Latin American, African, and Asian countries. Every American should read these stories to learn more about ourselves than other countries. After traveling to and working in more than 70 countries, this perceptive author tells you why."

Dr. Jerry Ice, CEO and President, The USDA Graduate School, U.S. Department of Agriculture

"When he was 18 years old Patrick Mendis left his home in Sri Lanka to attend the American high school year in the AFS student exchange program. A number of years later, he returned to the U.S. for further study at Harvard, Yale, Columbia, and the Humphrey Institute. Dr. Mendis continues his life's journey as recorded in the pages of Glocalization: The Human Side of Globalization as If the Washington Consensus Mattered. His courage and thirst for knowledge as a teenager has continued into his adult life. With his wife Cheryl and two children, Gamini and Samantha, the family has traveled to more than 30 countries. Dr. Mendis continues to contribute to increasing understanding among the people of our world as an educator and public servant. The diversity of experiences written about in this book and the richness of Dr. Mendis' life shine through in these pages of shared human aspiration. That courageous 18-year old boy still lives in Dr. Mendis and we are all better for it."

Alex J. Plinio, President, AFS Intercultural Programs Inc., New York

"Glocalization: The Human Side of Globalization as If the Washington Consensus Mattered is truly an adventure of ideas and information. Dr. Patrick Mendis takes the reader through a compelling and compassionate voyage of discovery as he sets sail to the winds of globalization. The vast scale and scope of this work is a feast for the mind and the eyes!"

Professor Debashis Chatterjee, Chair, Center for Leadership and Human Values at the Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow, and Author of Leading Consciously

"Professor Patrick Mendis has produced an eye-opening and insightful book about different cultures and globalization. The book is a must-have for those who are working on local, national, and international issues regardless of one's profession or specialization. It is truly an inspiring work by Professor Mendis, to whom I am also grateful for having invaluable discussion on various issues on ethnic diversity, international development, and poverty alleviation during our graduate studies at the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota. The book will stimulate intellectual curiosity to further explore a host of challenging issues in globalization, which he calls 'glocalization.'"

Professor Miyuki Inaba, Faculty of Languages and Cultures, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

"America's fundamental illiteracy about globalization represents a grave threat to its continued positive unfolding, for no nation does more to encourage its spread and no nation can do more to torpedo its future through bad political choices. Patrick Mendis' book helps much to combat that ignorance by providing a traveler's-eye-view of how this unprecedented change wave is reformatting the planet. We can't get enough of this sort of education."

Professor Thomas P.M. Barnett, Author of The Pentagon's New Map and Blueprint for Action, U.S. Naval War College, Baker Center Distinguished Scholar at University of Tennessee

"Patrick Mendis is a master teacher, an excellent writer, and a world citizen. He has reissued and revised a book that brings a human face to globalization and that, next to extensive world travel, provides as much insight as one can get on the topic. Read it for education; read it for fun; read it to help a good cause; whatever you do, read it."

Professor Shelton L. Williams, President, The Osgood Center for International Studies, Washington D.C. and author of Summer of 66

Profile of Dr. Patrick Mendis

After his government service at the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Energy, Defense, and State, Patrick Mendis returned to academia. He served as a visiting professor of economics and public policy at the University of Pittsburgh’s Semester at Sea program during the 2004 spring voyage before joining Norwich University to teach in its Master of Arts in Diplomacy program. He is currently serving as the vice president of academic affairs at the Osgood Center for International Studies and a visiting scholar at the Johns Hopkins University’s Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, D.C.

Prior to joining the U.S. State Department, Mendis was a graduate military professor through the University of Maryland for the U.S. Department of Defense in the NATO and the Pacific Commands, for which he received the University of Maryland’s Stanley J. Drazek Teaching Excellence Award. He taught MBA/MPA and undergraduate international relations courses at every major military installation in England, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, and Turkey. As a visiting professor, Mendis also taught in China through the University of Maryland and in the former Soviet Union through the University of Minnesota.

He received the Meritorious Honor Award and the Benjamin Franklin Award from the U.S. State Department for his interagency leadership, the management of international educational and cultural programs, and UN negotiations during the Clinton and Bush administrations. He served as a member of the governing board of the USDA Graduate School, an appointment by the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture.

Before joining the Maryland faculty in 1997, he served as a lecturer in international relations and a visiting scholar in applied economics at the University of Minnesota since 1990. Dr. Mendis also worked at the Minnesota House of Representatives, the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, the World Bank, and the United Nations. For his contributions, he was recognized with numerous honors, including the Hubert Humphrey Alumni Award for Outstanding Leadership, the University of Minnesota President’s Leadership and Service Award, and the Governor Harold Stassen Award for United Nations Affairs.

He earned his BS degree in business administration and economics (First Class Honors) from the University of Sri Jayewardenepura in Sri Lanka, an MA in international development and foreign affairs from the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota, and a PhD in geography/applied economics from the University of Minnesota at Twin Cities. He is an alumnus of the Harvard Executive Leadership Program at the John F. Kennedy School of Government. Mendis completed his postdoctoral teaching and research at Yale and Columbia Universities respectively. Author of more than 100 books, journal articles, newspaper columns, and government documents, Dr. Mendis is a fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science, a life member of the Society for International Development, and listed in Who’s Who in America and Who’s Who in the World. He serves on the editorial boards of Energy & Environment in the United Kingdom and The Public Manager in the United States.

As an AFS exchange scholar from Sri Lanka, Mendis graduated from Perham High School in northern Minnesota. He and his Scandinavian wife Cheryl, another AFS exchange student from Minnesota to Japan, met at the Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. They have two teenage children: Gamini is at Purdue University and Samantha is at Chantilly High School in Virginia. They live in Reston but consider Minnesota their home.

E-mail: patrickmendis@gmail.com